What is Location of Cord of Ancient Wood?The location of cord of ancient wood is typically found in forested areas, especially in areas that are more humid and contain more dense stands of trees. It is often used for a variety of purposes, including furniture making, construction, and firewood. It is usually harvested from dead or decaying trees, as the wood is soft and easy to work with. It is important to note that cord of ancient wood is not the same as cordwood, which is a measure of volume for firewood.
Using FT-Raman spectrometry, we studied a fragment of ancient cordage. This cordage is part of a large reed basket used in ancient times. The cordage was dated to about 1200 BC. It was found at the Abri du Maras, an old site located in the Middle East.
Abri du Maras
Earlier this year, researchers from C2RMF and the Centre for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France (CRR) announced the discovery of an ancient cord in a cave in southeast France. The line is a 6.2 mm long fragment of fibers twisted together.
The cord consists of fibers from gymnosperms (conifers) like pine, spruce, and cedar. It has been dated 5320-4980 cal BC. The cordage is preserved in a waterlogged archaeological layer of the site.
The cord proves that fiber technology was already present in the early Middle Paleolithic. Cordage is a precursor to boats, mats, and clothing. This technology requires a complex set of cognitive skills, similar to human language and maths.
The oldest direct evidence of string comes from a 50,000-year-old cord fragment found in the Abri du Maras cave in southeastern France. It is thought to have been created by Neanderthals, who lived in the cave between 90,000 and 42,000 years ago.
In addition to the cord, there are fragments of plant fibers from the site. These fibers are thought to have been used to create a net or handle. The cable itself adhered to a stone tool. Several types of lines were made at the site, including twisted, plied cords that can be used to make baskets and fabric.
The cord fragment is also direct evidence that Neandertals produced tools from wood. They also had basic numeracy skills, like modern humans. Using these skills, Neanderthals would have had to know how to twin fibers into multiple-ply cords.
The Cord at Abri du Maras is a unique example of cord production in the western Mediterranean region. It provides new insights into Rhone Valley landscapes during MIS 3.
Levallois flake (G8 128)
During an ongoing archaeological excavation at Abri du Maras, a small cord made of the inner bark of gymnosperms (trees) was found, albeit in a less-than-stellar context. The line was 6.2 mm in length and contained a microscopically believable number of fibers. It was also the first of its kind and the first to be found in Maras, a site renowned for its Middle Paleolithic (MP) finds.
The cord itself demonstrates the complexities of fiber technology. The line is not simply a bundle of fibers but a composite of multiple-ply cables that ply together with a Z-twist. The flint flake or core on which it is deposited is known as a Levallois flake and is the product of the same prehistoric technology that is also found at Boqer Tachtit, a site in the Negev Desert of Israel.
The cord, or cords, were deposited on or before the flake. The line is made of inner bark from gymnosperms, which hardens to form bark. The thread may be a precursor to a net or boat, or it could simply be swag.
The cord was not merely placed on the flake; it was also similarly buried in a buried context to the bit or as an integral part of the haft. The FT-Raman spectrometer used to analyze the cord was non-invasive, allowing the study team to get a complete picture of the fibers within. The results showed that the line contained several different threads, which is not surprising given that the cord was produced in the Middle Paleolithic (MP), during which the Neanderthals (and later humans) had extensive knowledge of the seasonality of trees and their growth.
Morphology of the cordage fragment
Several millennia ago, cordage was used to hold logs and other tree materials together. Cordage was also used to tether bone tips to spears and stone tools. Its use suggests knowledge of tree growth, seasonality, and planning and is thought to have significantly affected mobility.
Cordage consists of an inner bark of a tree, usually a conifer. The cord is elongated and can have more than one ply. Cordage is used to make bags, nets, and structures. Various species of trees have been used in cordage production. The proportions of cellulose and lignin in different species vary. Pine bast has been used historically for cordage. Typically, the cord is plied, with one ply twisted in a single direction and the other in the opposite direction. Historically, cordage was produced from conifer, hardwood, and softwood species.
Cordage is the oldest direct evidence of fiber technology, showing an ecological understanding of trees. Detailed knowledge of tree growth, seasonality, and planning were necessary to produce cordage. Cordage may have also been used for watercraft and transportation. Cordage was probably used to tie logs together for rafts and transport.
Cordage has been found in the Americas. Cordage may have been used to make rafts, bags, nets, structures, and clothing. Cordage made from 3-strand braided fibers has been widely documented in various contexts. The Cordage from Santa Maira, Spain, could have been used to make sandals, clothing, or rudimentary textiles. Cordage was also used to tie arrowheads to bows. Cordage from Santa Maira may have been used for carrying equipment.
The FT-Raman spectrometry technique is non-invasive and provides high spatial resolution. The method has become increasingly common in stone tool residue analysis. It can also be used to date stone tools.
Ancient woodworking techniques in the Middle East
Civilizations have used woodworking techniques to create buildings, furniture, and even tools throughout the centuries. The history of woodworking can be traced back to ancient times. Ancient civilizations in the Middle East used wood to create structures, furniture, and even tools. They also used wood to build weapons. The techniques used in these early days of woodworking have remained the same today.
Ancient Egyptians used simple tools such as chisels and pulled saws to create woodwork. They also used adzes to dress the timber. They were the first to apply varnish to their wooden projects. They also used a two-person lathe, which was invented around 1300 BCE.
Ancient Persian artisans were known to sit in a butterfly pose, bending their knees and pointing them away from their bodies. The artisans also held a piece of wood between their soles.
The Ancient Persian culture also practiced a technique of inlaying wood called khatam. They often decorated their doors with khatam. Khatam was also used on furniture.
The Hebrew Bible describes Noah building an ark out of cypress wood. He was given a 120-year project to build the ark. He also displayed exceptional woodworking skills during the construction of the ark.
Ancient Hebrews also became involved in carpentry. Their culture began to improve over time, and they began to produce intricate woodwork. Biblical woodworkers believed that they were able to create dovetails and mitered joints. They also carved linings on ceilings and panels.
Ancient civilizations also built elaborate wooden boats. The earliest examples of wooden ships were found in the east of Asia around 800 BC. The boat was 27 feet long and seven feet wide.
Using Fourier Transform Raman spectrometry (FT-Raman), the oldest direct evidence of fiber technology was located in Abri du Maras, a Middle Paleolithic site in France. The cord fragment, dated 41-52 ka, was found in the flake G8 128. Its size and shape are indicative of a twisted, three-ply cord.
The cord is 6.2 mm in length and 0.5 mm wide. It was discovered on the inferior surface of the flake. It needs to be clarified if the line was a part of the flake or a part of a bag or haft. It was placed in a zip-style plastic bag for microscopic analysis. The cord structure was photographed using a Hirox 2D/3D digital microscope at the Centre for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France.
The cord is one of many fiber-related items found at the site. Plant/wood fibers were also found on artifacts. These fibers are multicellular and appear to be related to cordage. However, they need to exhibit more plying.
Another example of a fiber-related item is a cord fragment from a stone tool from Abri du Maras. It is twisted, three-ply, and has a similar shape to replica cords produced in modern materials.
Cords are historically made from pine bast and juniper, although spruce has also been used. The cord fragment on the Levallois flake illustrates the use of fiber technology.
The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectro-imaging systems are well-suited to analyzing a wide range of heterogeneous samples. They enable spectral collection from each pixel in the image. Combined with a microscope, they allow a rapid and reliable analysis of minute concentrations of unique biomarkers. These findings prove that ancient wood was transformed into functional materials, demonstrating tree growth and seasonality knowledge.